Types of VPN: fundamental differences, features
If you already know what VPN technology is, where it is used and what are its main advantages, you can consider in more detail the various options for its implementation, as well as mention their pros and cons.
VPN classification: variety – the key to success
Let's consider those VPN options that an ordinary user may encounter during everyday online activity. First of all, this concerns VPNs, which will help protect you when connecting to public Wi-Fi and allow you to bypass blocking of various resources. Typically, VPN services provide users with the ability to independently configure a connection, following a specific algorithm step by step.
Recently, many services have made the process of setting up a VPN as simple as possible, hiding complex technical details inside the service architecture, leaving on the surface only primitive options for choosing and influencing the effectiveness of the VPN, understandable even to a child. However, in some cases it is useful to understand the differences between different VPN options in order to more clearly understand which service will best suit your needs.
Types of VPN: differences, features of work
Let's look at the main types of VPN, the choice between which depends on the specific needs of the user:
- The oldest of the protocols — PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol), which appeared two decades ago, has its advantages and disadvantages. Its main advantage is that it supports almost all operating systems, including quite outdated ones. This gives it versatility and accessibility. However, due to its age, the protocol provides a low level of security. Protocol encryption methods leave much to be desired, and cracking a password on modern equipment can take less than a day. However, in cases where connection security is not a top priority, or when other options are not available, using PPTP with encryption is preferable to no encryption.
- L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol), much like PPTP, is considered more efficient for creating virtual networks, although it requires slightly more computing resources. Typically used by Internet providers and corporate users. It should be noted that L2TP does not provide encryption by default and is often used in parallel with other protocols such as IPSec.
- IPSec (Internet Protocol Security): A comprehensive set of protocols and standards designed to provide secure connections on the Internet. IPSec was designed to continually improve and meet modern requirements. This suite of protocols exhibits a robust architecture, uses strong encryption algorithms, and offers a variety of capabilities.
- SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) and TLS (Transport Layer Security) VPNs are a category of solutions that use the corresponding SSL and TLS protocols, sometimes complemented by other security methods. The advantage of SSL/TLS VPNs is their ease of passage through almost all public networks, thanks to the widespread use of these protocols on the Internet. However, they also have disadvantages, such as relatively low performance in practice, difficulty in setting up, and the need to install additional software. Among the popular implementations of SSL/TLS VPN are Open VPN.
These are just the most popular VPN types among private users.
What protocol does the private VPN server use
Private VPN servers often use different VPN protocols, depending on user preferences and security and performance requirements. The most common classes of VPN protocols for personal servers are Open VPN, WireGuard, L2TP/IPsec and others.